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Visual methods with young people: encouraging creativity or bad photography?

I have just seen my final paper from my PhD project be accepted for publication, which offers me a chance to reflect back on the five publications that project prompted (all linked to at the end of this piece). It was a visual ethnography with secondary school students over one academic year, with students creating photo diaries of their engagement in physical activity (and also what they do when they are not active). The creative and participatory elements of this methodology gave me plenty to write about in these publications and I noted the additional insight into young people’s worlds that a photography project can provide – especially their lives outside of school or otherwise beyond the ethnographic site where we cannot physically go. I was also keen to share the participants’ photos as much as possible by reproducing representative pictures alongside the interview data we generated in talking about the photos and the participants’ experiences of physical activity. It felt important to share because this was something that the participants put time into making – and perhaps in some way it would work to deprivilege words in academic publication.

Participatory methods are often active or creative, and work to engage participants in the research process (Enright and O’Sullivan, 2012); they are a part of listening to and privileging student voice over doing research ‘on’ young people. For Gauntlett and Holzwarth (2006), visual creative methods are enabling, reflective, and a good starting point for examining identity and self.

What happens if participants engage with these methods but aren’t particularly … creative? What are we really looking for, something pretty or artistic or evocative?

There were indeed many wonderful photographs created by my participants, who wanted and were able to tell a story with or through their images. Examples include the boy I called Mitesh in Hill (2013 and 2015) who brought back more than 50 photos of his attempts in PE and out-of-school play to work on a body that would provide him with more status. It was really easy to decide to share some of these photos to add emotion to his verbal explanations. The visual was really powerful.

If this doesn’t happen, should we not bother reproducing the images in our publications?

In this project, of a total 539 photos created by the 25 participants, I received 78 photos of empty spaces, 75 photos of objects, and 112 self-portraits or snaps of friends. Many of them would not go in a photo album nor would they be chosen for an art exhibition. In short, they are not ‘great photography’.

Collectively, they contribute to telling stories about these young people’s engagement with and access to physical activity, its importance to them and how they try to fit it into their lives alongside school work, visiting family, relaxing with friends, worship and helping out at home. This side of the story showed that finding time for physical activity was difficult; it also showed that taking photos during physical activity is not always possible; and importantly the ‘storyless’ photos prompted some participants to explain that this was not all they did – they were able to talk about their other activities that the photos did not show. Photos in that sense provided elicitation, prompting further ‘feelings and memories’ as Douglas Harper has discussed (2002, p. 13).

I think the risk is that the ‘boring’ images that are not shared become the story not told, the hidden elements of the research project, and we might find ourselves at risk of not telling the whole story, simply because the data itself has little to ‘show’. This is obviously something that can happen with other forms of qualitative data, with mundane accounts or short answers possible in interviews. But I feel that there is still something to prove with creative methods, something that needs displaying to prove they are worthwhile forms of data generation, in the face of scepticism. I want to be proud of the project as a whole and that means reproducing elements of the data, not hiding it because my 13 year old participants had bad photography skills. In a journal publication where reproduction of four or five images might be possible, how do we make choices about what to show? If you claim to have used visual methods, but only reproduce the text or verbal data, that might render readers disappointed or confused as to what the visual data were for. In order not to privilege verbal accounts over visual, even if they are contradictory or less … instantly valuable? … the visual should, in my view, be shared.

Perhaps ultimately, this reflection contributes to calls for accessible datasets – provided we have ethically prepared for this – to let viewers see for themselves. Leonard and McKnight (2014, p. 2) highlight that the ‘seemingly mundane’ image is open to interpretation and might be seen differently by different viewers (citing Pink, 2007).

All data reproduction, whether from qualitative or quantitative projects, is a manipulation of the whole that will always involve some level of subjective decision making on what and how to present snippets of data in publication. In analysing and sharing data, researchers distill, shorten, concentrate, categorise – however you would like to call it – meaning that even the bad photography should be chosen if it contributes to emphasising the story or the decisions you’ve made for that publication.

References

Enright, E., & O’Sullivan, M. (2012). “Producing different knowledge and producing knowledge differently”: rethinking physical education research and practice through participatory visual methods. Sport, Education and Society, 17(1), 35–55.

Gauntlett, D., & Holzwarth, P. (2006). Creative and visual methods for exploring identities. Visual Studies, 21(1), 82–91.

Harper, D. (2002). Talking about pictures: a case for photo elicitation. Visual Anthropology, 17(1), 13–26.

Leonard, M., & McKnight, M. (2014). Look and tell: using photo-elicitation methods with teenagers. Children’s Geographies, 1–14. doi:10.1080/14733285.2014.887812

Pink, S. (2007). Doing visual ethnography: Images, media and representation in research. 2nd ed. London: Sage.

The five publications from this project

Hill, J. and Azzarito, L. (2012). Representing valued bodies in PE: a visual inquiry with British Asian girls. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 17(3), 263-276.
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17408989.2012.690381#.U5yyKfldWSo

Hill, J. (2013). Rejecting the weak Asian body: boys visualising strong masculinities. In L. Azzarito & D. Kirk (Eds.). Physical Culture, Pedagogies and Visual Methods, 76-91. Abingdon: Routledge. http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415532778/

Hill, J. (2013). Using participatory and visual methods to address power and identity in research with young people. Graduate Journal of Social Sciences, 10(2), 132-151.
http://gjss.org/images/stories/volumes/10/2/GJSS%20Vol%2010-2%20Hill.pdf

Hill, J. (2015) ‘If you miss the ball, you look like a total muppet!’ Boys investing in their bodies in physical education and sport. Sport, Education and Society 20(6), 762-779. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13573322.2013.820695#.U15a1VVdWiw

Hill, J. Girls’ active identities: navigating othering discourses of femininity, bodies and physical education. Gender and Education 27 (6), 666-684. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09540253.2015.1078875#.V2RNQrsrLIU

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Writers’ group second session: overcoming hurdles and planning a writing schedule

The second virtual meeting of the writers’ group was this week, opening a new month of writing. We started by recapping our goals for May and whether we had met them. As my goals involved two papers that had fixed deadlines during May, I was happy to report that I had submitted these revisions. One paper has also since been granted final acceptance so I was pleased to see that get to the end.

Discussing whether we had met our goals, we started to talk about hurdles in the way of completing goals or even in the way of writing at all. For me, the end of the teaching year has enabled me to concentrate much more on writing than I can do in term time. Others in the group, however, raised issues that had distracted them or affected their motivation. It was suggested that we have a splinter group aside from the main writing group, in which we could share frustrations! Just a few minutes talking about problems felt therapeutic.

Turning to strategies to help get the writing going, we noted the differences between concentrating for short bursts and trying to sit writing for a whole day. While some people could only get going with a long period of time, others saw the difficulty of arranging long periods and the greater practicality of fitting writing around other demands. In my experience (and supported by the reading about writing that I have been doing lately), a lot of it comes down to planning. This helps to avoid wasted time trying to get into some writing. I can have a designated writing time but if I’ve not planned what I will write during it, I sit doing nothing, staring at the screen or moving bits around. So I have been breaking my to do list into micro pieces that will fit around other jobs.

And so to plans for this month. The meeting was useful for me as it prompted me to think about what I need to get finished this month, as I’ll be on leave for a lot of July. My plans are to have full drafts of two chapters, see a paper that I am second author on sent to journal (it’s very close to done), and try to do the analysis for a further project. There are other jobs also on my bonus list that I won’t feel bad about not completing, but that would help if they are done. By setting some goals and reporting back on them, the group members can have some accountability and hopefully get done what they planned.

Selecting a journal for a publication in a new-to-you field

One of my current projects has taken me outside of my typical academic fields into new territory (early childhood and colouring books). I love reading in this area and really delving into the topic. I don’t have to worry about getting bogged down into reams of literature, or misrepresenting something I read years ago, or getting bored due to over-familiarity. In a way, my lack of knowledge (or my ignorance!) is good for both my motivation and for the writing I will do: I think that I won’t be trying to show off my depth of knowledge and end up with a 20 page literature review, I’ll be happy with focusing on the specifics. Of course, I may end up trying to reinvent the wheel because I’ve missed something vital, or risk upsetting editors and reviewers who are much more grounded in the field than I am. I’ll try to remain aware of that.

Once the research and the resultant paper(s) are ready to make their way to these editors and reviewers, I need to select the journal(s) where I’ll send them. When I first had this thought, I had to stop and think. What on earth would be a good journal? In my own field, I have a fairly good awareness of the range of journals available. I peer review for many of them, and I have a long term publication strategy that is aiming to send my papers to the journals that are right for each paper and that will establish my name in my field. My working knowledge of each journal, and my relationships with editorial staff, mean that choosing a journal in a field I know is not really too difficult. But now I’m encountering a new field (for the meantime anyway – I’m hoping this project will grow and will be guided back into my own fields), a new set of editors, and really just lots of unknowns.

I had to return to the drawing board to think about journals for this new project.

Which journal has the best metrics?

This sprang to mind as the best way to find the “best” journal, initially. I visited the Scientific Journal Ranking (SJR) site and ran a search on journals containing a keyword related to the area my paper is in, “childhood”. For each of the journals this search returned, I made a note of the SJR number (a measure of how many cites the journal receives in a year against how many articles it published in the last three years), the h index (the journal has h papers that have h citations). Then I visited Google Scholar Metrics and ran a similar search; Scholar keeps slightly different metrics including h5-index (the h-index for articles published in the last 5 complete years; it is the largest number h such that h articles published in 2009-2013 have at least h citations each) and h5-median (the median number of citations for the articles that make up its h5-index). I did this to get as full as picture as possible. As well as enabling me to put some sort of ranking on the journals, I was able to see that some journals appear in SJR but not in Scholar. This raised a few questions for me as I wondered whether this would affect how a reference to this journal would be dealt with on my own Scholar page. Would Scholar struggle to find citations to my paper in the future? Would it not include these citations in my own h-index?

For my search, there was a clear “best” journal that had a h index twice as high as the next journal. However, I couldn’t just take that journal as best for my paper. Firstly, I had noticed that a lot of the journals I had found through the SJR searches were only founded in the last 10 years. They had significantly lower metric scores than the more established journals, suggesting to me that metrics (inadvertently or not) favour long-established journals. That makes sense, but doesn’t give us a full picture of the newer journals – what if they are becoming highly regarded? What if they are being highly cited this year (SJR’s most recent data as of 2015 is for 2013)?

So I turned to other ways to find the best journal.

Which journals have I cited in the paper?

This should also be a key factor in choosing the journal, and in my particular search, led to me dismissing some of the higher ranking journals from my SJR and Scholar searches. If you’re trying to publish in a journal whose work you have not engaged with, this will raise questions around why you thought this was a suitable journal. I once heard a journal editor say that one of the first things they do when they receive a submission is look for their journal in your reference list. You need to be engaging in the previous material in the journal in order to show you’re making a contribution to its debates.

On a related point,

Which journal takes topics like yours?

Murray (2005) states that what is acceptable for a journal is, in a way, what’s already been published there – you should be able to meet their conventions but offer something sufficiently new, a clear contribution. The questions you will need to ask yourself include, what do these conventions and new contributions look like for my target journal(s)? What will the audience know about your subject, and if your paper challenges accepted knowledge, what will the audience assume does not need to be questioned?

The clearest place to look is the journal’s aims. There it will outline the remit of the journal and the sort of topics they are interested in. In my case of “childhood” journals, I was looking for key words such as curriculum, representation, social … and steering away from journals that focused on teacher education, policy, cognitive development.

You could then skim recent topics in the journal to see whether your material suits the subject, methodological or theoretical frameworks commonly or recently used (Murray, 2005). This will give more specifics or context to how those journal aims are actually met in practice.

Who are they published by?

Is the journal published by a big publishing house? Does that put you off or encourage you? Have you published through that publisher before and was it a good experience? Do you know whether they promote their new publications, what their website is like for searching and accessing papers? Is the submission site user-friendly? You might personally be encouraged or put off by smaller, or open access, publishers, or online-only journals.

Where do highly regarded people in the field publish?

Check the websites of top-rated departments, or individuals academics you admire, to see where they publish (Murray, 2005). Of course in a new-to-you field you might not know which are the top-rated departments, but if you put any merit on university league tables that filter by department you can find some sort of rankings there.

Who is on the editorial boards?

Among other tips, Becker and Dencolo (2012) suggest looking at the editorial boards for the journals you’re considering – who is there and do you cite any of them? Do you want to work with any of them in the future? You could also drop a line to the editor introducing your paper and ask them whether they think it would be suitable and would welcome your submission.

Get advice from a knowledgeable friend

Talk to a friend or colleague who does work in the chosen field, who could advise on journal prestige (Becker and Denicolo, 2012). They might know more about recently founded journals, those to whom metrics give low scores simply because they are new and haven’t built up years of citations and impact. They might also know which editorial boards and publishers are easy to work with!

Ultimately, I have used a combination of these to help me find the best journal. The decision is not final yet, as there are three journals I’ve short listed. A little more consideration of the journals’ aims, their recent papers, and the take home message from my paper should help. This exercise in examining the journals in this new field has certainly made the way clearer.

I would love to hear your advice for selecting a journal, in comments!

Becker, L. and Denicolo, P. (2012). Publishing journal articles. London: Sage.

Murray, R. (2005). Writing for academic journals. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Writers’ group: the first session

The new writers’ group that I mentioned in my last post had its first meeting just over a week ago.

This was a Skype meeting, and enabled us to introduce ourselves (I only knew one other member before now). We started by discussing what writing we hoped to get done this summer and how that had motivated us to join the writers’ group. As I will be starting maternity leave in August, my aim is to complete a few pieces of analysis and writing, and to leave longer term projects in a tidy state while I am away from work.

We also outlined what this group could do for us and how we might progress over the next few months. Suggestions included regular Skype sessions that include actual writing time; sharing writing to gain feedback; and setting our own targets for the next meeting.

We settled on making targets for our next meeting in early June, at this stage at least, although the group will develop as we go along and see what works. We also decided that at this early stage it is better to have small targets so that we don’t each fall at the first hurdle, having set more than could be managed! So I chose to set myself three things for May: complete paper that was due back with reviewers on 8th May; complete paper due back with reviewers on 18th May; and draw up a list of jobs for the summer. Perhaps it was a cop out to choose things that have specific deadlines this month, but at least I have already completed one and have the other well in hand!

There were also chances for mutual support on the journal submission process, responding to reviewers, and encountering new fields slightly outside what you’re familiar with.

Since the meeting signed off, we have already had an exchange of a couple of pieces of writing – one paper and one set of responses to journal reviewers – so that we could provide a new perspective for another writer.

Writers’ groups: establishing or joining a new group

I recently joined a newly established academic writers’ group. As we are new, our first steps are to set goals or discuss strategies and structure.

I have written previously about the value perceived by many academics in having someone to whom you are accountable in terms of writing, whether it is about actual outputs or daily targets. The growth of initiatives like AcWriMo and Shut Up And Write indicates the appeal of not being on your own when you’re trying to begin or maintain a writing habit.

Coincidentally I joined this group shortly after I had picked up a couple of books in the library by one of my favourite writers about writing, Rowena Murray. The first one that I have started to read, Writing for Academic Journals, has a chapter (‘Dialogue and Feedback’) that discusses the benefits and aims of writers’ groups.

I’m aiming to write a few posts about my experiences in this new group and whether it has any effect on my writing plans this summer. Before I embark on the initiative, I would like to share my thoughts on what Murray has to say about writers’ groups.

Murray on writers’ groups
Unsurprisingly, the first point Murray makes about the purpose of a writing group is simply that it can encourage you to make time for writing. When writing might not feel like legitimate use of your time in the face of teaching, marking and admin demands, “cloaking” the writing as a meeting might feel more like an outwardly acceptable use of your time.

Trying to make more time, on your own, without support, would be more likely to fail (p171)

She then recommends that each group member think carefully about what they want to achieve from the group. Is it just accountability and collegiality? Or to share writing with each other and get feedback? Communicating with others about your ideas might lead to a new way to express those ideas. I can certainly vouch for this suggestion, with many a breakthrough coming from articulating my thoughts to others. Perhaps it is discussion about writing practices, or to share information about journals and their review process? These aims might develop and become more specific.

Crucially however, Murray advises that each group meeting involve at least some time spent writing, and not just talking about writing, since productivity is the bottom line for the group. I think this might be easier with offline groups compared to online.

Each writer will also, Murray says, need to have a writing project they are working on, and “everyone in the group should know each other’s writing goals” (p173).

So what should we talk about at each meeting? If everyone is in a similar field, we could analyse the journals we are targeting (this may not work because of my group’s disciplinary variety); discuss plans; do some writing; set goals and monitor others’ progress; give and receive feedback; discuss strategies for quality writing and publication (p174).

Ultimately there is scope for writers’ groups to support positive feelings and, later, success. From this advice I get a sense of the tone of the rest of Murray’s book (that I’ve read so far): writing needs to have small goals and doable tasks. For instance, “my next 30 minute task will be…” These work much more successfully than”finish xyz paper”. Her aims for writing groups fit in with this.

For me, I think my aim is to have a space on my calendar to state as writing time because of accountability to a group. I would want to have made progress before the next meeting! It is, I find, easy to put off the deeper thinking and writing tasks because of the feeling that they need long periods of sitting and concentrating – a valuable commodity. I am also hoping that sharing my plans with the group will help to clarify my next steps and my priorities.

The group I am in has its first online meeting on Friday.

Fat and Fabulous / Plus Size Wars (Channel 4) and fat acceptance

While waiting for One Born Every Minute to appear on 4seven this week, I caught the last ten minutes of a programme listed as Fat and Fabulous, although it appears to have been renamed Plus Size Wars, as this is how it is discussed on the internet and listed on catch up service 4od. This programme covered a recent move by some modelling agencies to hire plus size models and in the snippet I watched, a top model Tina Holliday was meeting fans (many of whom are bloggers) at an event in a shop in a mall.

I can’t comment on the programme as a whole but two positives stood out from what I saw.

Tina’s fans who met her made numerous comments about the high value they placed on just seeing someone like themselves in the media. They saw that she is the same size or shape as they are, and expressed how seeing her and her success made them feel better about themselves. They noted that only in recent years had they been able to find fat bodies like their own reflected back at them in fashionable and empowered ways. One mentioned that she wished she had been able to see this when she was growing up, as she wouldn’t have felt so alone. This positivity within a broader fat acceptance movement shows that as a society we could take a more humanising approach to the research populations – the people, the individuals – who are scrutinised, blamed, moralised on, and marginalised. Because it is not difficult to see what it feels like.

On my web travels to find more information on this programme I came across this piece from Charlotte at apple-charlotte.com which expresses this very nicely, so I’d like to quote a little from it:

you can not stereotype a whole group of people based on appearance and deem them ‘unhealthy’ and then use that as grounds to discriminate and isolate. […] why should I have to justify my body and circumstances? And fat people who don’t have PCOS or other medical reasons that may cause them to be big, doesn’t mean that they should experience any more or less hate than me. (we shouldn’t experience any AT ALL) When did someone’s health become a currency in life? All the medical problems you can get from being overweight you can also get from being average or below weight. You can also be fat and have absolutely no medical problems – YES, REALLY. (and also be slim and have hundreds of medical problems) You can also be fat and fit – Tess Munster herself works out 3 times a week, and she’s not alone in that. But again, why should fat people prove that they are a ‘good’ fat person who eats healthily and works out regularly? There are going to be fat people who don’t eat so good, and don’t do any exercise (and also a lot of slim people who do the same – yet face no prejudice because their bodies supposedly do not reflect their ‘unhealthy’ lifestyle) – but SO WHAT?! That doesn’t make them less of a human being. Everyone on this earth deserves complete equal rights, and if you don’t believe that because you think fat people are evil human beings or something, then you really need to think about what you’re suggesting. You’re suggesting that slim people, or people that fit the perfect image are worth and deserve more, and therefore the most important people on this planet; anyone who doesn’t fit this ‘perfect’ and ‘healthy’ image should then suffer the consequences of their failing lives.

When healthism takes visuals – body size – as a measure of healthiness and value, those deemed not to fit are dehumanised.

The second positive element in the programme came in an interview with a modelling agency (worker? owner?). She must’ve been asked something concern-troll-like such as, is it not bad to have fat role models like Tina Holliday because it can encourage unhealthy lifestyles? Her reply was (paraphrasing) I cant comment on how healthy or not Tina is. I’m not a doctor. She left it at that. It shouldn’t be, but it was refreshing to hear that when the moralising voices are so loud.

Plus Size Wars is currently available on 4od.

Eat better or eat less? Reporting obesity and activity studies in the news

The BBC’s news site today (23/04/15) has reported on an editorial in the British Journal of Sports Medicine . The BBC report quotes:

In an editorial in the British Journal of Sports Medicine, three international experts said it was time to “bust the myth” about exercise.

They said while activity was a key part of staving off diseases such as diabetes, heart disease and dementia, its impact on obesity was minimal.

Instead excess sugar and carbohydrates were key.

There are a few things I would like to discuss in the news report. Although I have read the editorial itself, I assume the typical BBC News reader will not click through, and hence takes the news report as correctly representing the editorial (or more likely the press release – also available at the link above).

Firstly, claiming exercise doesn’t help is a really big claim, almost radical. Physical activity has been reliably linked to health in significant numbers of studies. But I’ll go with it for now, as the report also mentions later:

[R]esearch has shown that diabetes increases 11-fold for every 150 additional sugar calories consumed compared to fat calories.

And they pointed to evidence from the Lancet global burden of disease programme which shows that unhealthy eating was linked to more ill health than physical activity, alcohol and smoking combined.

So there could be something more important about unhealthy eating than low physical activity.

Secondly, we read at the bottom of the quote above that “excess sugar and carbohydrates were key” – presumably key to having an impact on obesity. Well, ok so far, as it’s pretty well also established that excess sugar is not a part of a balanced diet. This must be the unhealthy eating they were talking about. But it’s not part of a balanced diet for anyone at any size, so my sizism warning light was flashing at this stage. Is the problem poor health or obesity? They’re not always connected.

Which is something even the news report acknowledges:

They said there was evidence that up to 40% of those within a normal weight range will still harbour harmful metabolic abnormalities typically associated with obesity.

40% of those in a normal (“normal”) weight range. That’s a significant number. That’s quite a lot of “normal” weight range people with metabolic abnormalities. I wonder why these abnormalities are “typically associated” with obesity, if there are 40% of “normal” weight range people also displaying them. Sounds quite widespread to me.

The whammy comes next, and this is according to the BBC a quote from the editorial author:

Dr Malhotra said: “An obese person does not need to do one iota of exercise to lose weight, they just need to eat less. My biggest concern is that the messaging that is coming to the public suggests you can eat what you like as long as you exercise. (My emphasis)

Having established that unhealthy eating is bad, and unhealthy eating means excess sugar, which can mess with the metabolism of lots of people, now here’s the fat shaming right here. “An obese person … just [needs] to eat less”.

Not well, not less sugar, just less.

Obese people eat too much. Full stop, says the doctor.

This is a well established trope used within fat shaming and sizism to direct blame for overweight on the individual. I defer to Melissa McEwan at Shakesville to explain.

The logic just established in the report is thrown out in order to make a statement about how obese people just need to control themselves and eat less. I can also imagine some fear mongering going on here to scare normal weight range people into worrying about their diets, because if they are in that 40% with abnormal metabolism then they might be the ones who become obese later, no matter how much exercise they do.

I cannot find a reference to just eating less in the editorial or its press release themselves, so the source of the quote the BBC use is unclear but I’d be grateful upon being informed correctly.

The report sticks in a stock photo of a headless fatty, which is likely purely the BBC’s decision and not from the editorial, followed by two quotes to counter the editorial:

But others said it was risky to play down the role of exercise. Prof Mark Baker, of the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence, which recommends “well-balanced diets combined with physical activity”, said it would be “idiotic” to rule out the importance of physical activity.

A Food and Drink Federation spokeswoman said: “The benefits of physical activity aren’t food industry hype or conspiracy, as suggested. A healthy lifestyle will include both a balanced diet and exercise.”

She said the industry was encouraging a balanced diet by voluntarily providing clear on-pack nutrition information and offering products with extra nutrients and less salt, sugar and fat.

“This article appears to undermine the origins of the evidence-based government public health advice, which must surely be confusing for consumers,” she added.

The page positioning of these counterarguments is telling, below the photo and beyond a point many may read to. News reporters make a clear decision on the structuring of their reports and today this one has chosen a sizism message. Perhaps the message that excess sugar can harm many people and exercise will not counter the health damages that sugar can cause is too complex or not attention grabbing enough.

The editorial itself does make more reference to healthy eating over just less eating, but it also mentions “the obesity epidemic” and that obesity levels have “rocketed” – a whole other issue I won’t take up today! It also says:

many [members of the public] still wrongly believe that obesity is entirely due to lack of exercise

If only this were true, I think the fat shaming I mentioned above would diminish. Fat shaming is tied to ideas about self-control in eating. It is also linked to exercise, but not solely.

Additionally, there’s a number of Tweets today talking about “falling into the Big Food trap” or the “quackery” of the diet over exercise argument. I mention these without comment:

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